The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, first published in 1848 under the pseudonym of Acton Bell, was condemned by critics at the time. Acton was the pseudonym of Anne Brontë (1820-1849), a clergyman's daughter living in Yorkshire. Her older sisters Charlotte and Emily were the authors of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights respectively. The three had concealed their identities, aware that in the mid-nineteenth century female authors would struggle to have their work accepted seriously. However, the use of pseudonyms actually increased the level of curiosity, rumour-mongering and eventually the myth-makers, who were to revel in the concept of the literary sisterhood, isolated from the world but producing passionate work.
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