The Secret Life of 4, 5 and 6 year olds: references

References to some of the research that informed each chapter.

11 minutes to read
Group of eight children all posing in different ways

Making friends

Bauer, P. J. (2008). Toward a neuro-developmental account of the development of declarative memory. Developmental Psychobiology, 50(1), 19–31. doi:10.1002/dev.20265

Chen, P.-H. A., Whalen, P. J., Freeman, J. B., Taylor, J. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (2015). Brain reward activity to masked in-group smiling faces predicts friendship development. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(4), 415–421. doi:10.1177/1948550614566093

Edgin, J. O., Spano, G., Kawa, K., & Nadel, L. (2014). Remembering Things Without Context: Development Matters. Child Development, 85(4), 1491–1502. doi:10.1111/cdev.12232

Gobbini, M. I., & Haxby, J. V. (2007). Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces. Neuropsychologia, 45(1), 32–41. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.04.015

Lieberwirth, C., & Wang, Z. X. (2014). Social bonding: regulation by neuropeptides. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8, 13. doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00171

Myers, C. A., Wang, C., Black, J. M., Bugescu, N., & Hoeft, F. (2016). The matter of motivation: Striatal resting-state connectivity is dissociable between grit and growth mindset. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(10), 1521–1527. doi:10.1093/scan/nsw065

Radke, S., Seidel, E. M., Eickhoff, S. B., Gur, R. C., Schneider, F., Habel, U., & Derntl, B. (2016). When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation. Neuroimage, 127, 267–276. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.014

Righi, S., Gronchi, G., Marzi, T., Rebai, M., & Viggiano, M. P. (2015). You are that smiling guy I met at the party! Socially positive signals foster memory for identities and contexts. Acta Psychologica, 159, 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.05.001

Vrticka, P., Andersson, F., Sander, D., & Vuilleumier, P. (2009). Memory for friends or foes: The social context of past encounters with faces modulates their subsequent neural traces in the brain. Social Neuroscience, 4(5), 384–401. doi:10.1080/17470910902941793


Little grown-ups

Cannoni, E., & Bombi, A. S. (2016). Friendship and Romantic Relationships During Early and Middle Childhood. Sage Open, 6(3), 12. doi:10.1177/2158244016659904

Hatfield, E., Schmitz, E., Cornelius, J., & Rapson, R. L. (1988). Passionate Love. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 1(1), 35–51. doi:10.1300/J056v01n01_04


Language and the art of persuasion

Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Wilkins, R. W., Jauk, E., Fink, A., Silvia, P. J., . . . Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Creativity and the default network: A functional connectivity analysis of the creative brain at rest. Neuropsychologia, 64, 92–98. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.019

Eriksson, M., Marschik, P. B., Tulviste, T., Almgren, M., Pereira, M. P., Wehberg, S., . . . Gallego, C. (2012). Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: Evidence from 10 language communities. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(2), 326–343. doi:10.1111/j.2044–835X.2011.02042.x

Johnson, E. K. (2016). Constructing a Proto-Lexicon: An Integrative View of Infant Language Development. In M. Liberman & B. H. Partee (Eds.), Annual Review of Linguistics, Vol 2 (Vol. 2, pp. 391–412).

Kuhn, S., Ritter, S. M., Muller, B. C. N., van Baaren, R. B., Brass, M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2014). The Importance of the Default Mode Network in Creativity-A Structural MRI Study. Journal of Creative Behavior, 48(2), 152–163. doi:10.1002/jocb.45

Lange, B. P., Euler, H. A., & Zaretsky, E. (2016). Sex differences in language competence of 3-to 6-year-old children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(6), 1417–1438. doi:10.1017/s0142716415000624

Molenberghs, P., Prochilo, G., Steffens, N. K., Zacher, H., & Haslam, S. A. (2017). The Neuroscience of Inspirational Leadership: The Importance of Collective-Oriented Language and Shared Group Membership. Journal of Management, 43(7), 2168–2194. doi:10.1177/0149206314565242

Mumford, M. D., Watts, L. L., & Partlow, P. J. (2015). Leader cognition: Approaches and findings. Leadership Quarterly, 26(3), 301–306. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.03.005

Niven, K., & Boorman, L. (2016). Assumptions beyond the science: encouraging cautious conclusions about functional magnetic resonance imaging research on organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(8), 1150–1177. doi:10.1002/job.2097

Zubrick, S. R., Taylor, C. L., Rice, M. L., & Slegers, D. W. (2007). Late language emergence at 24 months: An epidemiological study of prevalence, predictors, and covariates. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 50(6), 1562–1592. doi:10.1044/1092–4388(2007/106)


Feelings and what to do with them

Decety, J., Michalska, K. J., & Kinzler, K. D. (2012). The Contribution of Emotion and Cognition to Moral Sensitivity: A Neurodevelopmental Study. Cerebral Cortex, 22(1), 209–220. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr111

Herrero, N., Gadea, M., Rodriguez-Alarcon, G., Espert, R., & Salvador, A. (2010). What happens when we get angry? Hormonal, cardiovascular and asymmetrical brain responses. Hormones and Behavior, 57(3), 276–283. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.008

Martin, R. E., & Ochsner, K. N. (2016). The neuroscience of emotion regulation development: implications for education. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 142–148. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.06.006

Perlman, S. B., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Developing connections for affective regulation: Age-related changes in emotional brain connectivity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 607–620. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.006

Pons, F., Lawson, J., Harris, P. L., & de Rosnay, M. (2003). Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44(4), 347–353. doi:10.1111/1467–9450.00354

Rotem-Kohavi, N., Oberlander, T. F., & Virji-Babul, N. (2017). Infants and adults have similar regional functional brain organization for the perception of emotions. Neuroscience Letters, 650, 118–125. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2017.04.031


Girls and boys

De Lisi, R., & Wolford, J. L. (2002). Improving children's mental rotation accuracy with computer game playing. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(3), 272–282.

Fausto-Sterling, A., Coll, C. G., & Lamarre, M. (2012). Sexing the baby: Part 1-What do we really know about sex differentiation in the first three years of life? Social Science & Medicine, 74(11), 1684–1692. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.051

Heil, M., Jansen, P., Quaiser-Pohl, C., & Neuburger, S. (2012). Gender-specific effects of artificially induced gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(3), 350–353. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.01.004


Resisting temptation

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Hammond, S. I. (2016). The development of moral sense and moral thinking. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 28(6), 743–747. doi:10.1097/mop.0000000000000412

Cobb-Moore, C., Danby, S., & Farrell, A. (2009). Young children as rule makers. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(8), 1477–1492. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2007.04.013

Funk, C. M., & Gazzaniga, M. S. (2009). The functional brain architecture of human morality. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19(6), 678–681. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2009.09.011

Prencipe, A., Kesek, A., Cohen, J., Lamm, C., Lewis, M. D., & Zelazo, P. D. (2011). Development of hot and cool executive function during the transition to adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 621–637. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.09.008

Steinbeis, N., Haushofer, J., Fehr, E., & Singer, T. (2016). Development of Behavioral Control and Associated vmPFC-DLPFC Connectivity Explains Children's Increased Resistance to Temptation in Intertemporal Choice. Cerebral Cortex, 26(1), 32–42. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu167

Yeshurun, Y., Lapid, H., Dudai, Y., & Sobel, N. (2009). The Privileged Brain Representation of First Olfactory Associations. Current Biology, 19(21), 1869–1874. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.066


Learning to lie, learning to love

Beckes, L., Coan, J. A., & Hasselmo, K. (2013). Familiarity promotes the blurring of self and other in the neural representation of threat. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(6), 670–677. doi:10.1093/scan/nss046

Denson, T. F., Wilkowski, B. M., DeWall, C. N., Friese, M., Hofmann, W., Ferguson, E. L., . . . Kasumovic, M. M. (2017). "Thou Shalt Kill": Practicing self-control supports adherence to personal values when asked to aggress. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 71–78. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.001

Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2008). Implicit and Explicit Processes in Social Cognition. Neuron, 60(3), 503–510. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.032

Molenberghs, P., Johnson, H., Henry, J. D., & Mattingley, J. B. (2016). Understanding the minds of others: A neuroimaging meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 276–291. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.020

Niedtfeld, I. (2017). Experimental investigation of cognitive and affective empathy in borderline personality disorder: Effects of ambiguity in multimodal social information processing. Psychiatry Research, 253, 58–63. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.03.037

Rueda, P., Fernandez-Berrocal, P., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Dissociation between cognitive and affective empathy in youth with Asperger Syndrome. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(1), 85–98. doi:10.1080/17405629.2014.950221


How to win at winning and losing

Hamilton, L. D., Carré, J. M., Mehta, P. H., Olmstead, N., & Whitaker, J. D. (2015). Social Neuroendocrinology of Status: A Review and Future Directions. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 1(2), 202–230. doi:10.1007/s40750–015–0025–5

Verbeke, W., Belschak, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & De Rijke, Y. B. (2015). Postgame Testosterone Levels of Individuals in Team-Based Status Games Are Affected by Genetic Makeup, Gender, and Winning Versus Losing. Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics, 8(3), 135–159. doi:10.1037/npe0000041


If at first you don’t succeed . . .

Chiu, M. M., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2010). Culture, motivation, and reading achievement: High school students in 41 countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 579–592. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.03.007

Datu, J. A. D. (2017). Sense of relatedness is linked to higher grit in a collectivist setting. Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 135–138. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.039