Publishing Jargon-Buster: Production

Take a look inside the inner workings of a publishing house with our publishing jargon-buster series. This time we're sharing the definitions of the most confusing terms used in book production!

22/09/2017
11 minutes to read

Many of the best bits of publishing jargon lie within the production process. So, being utter word-nerds all, we asked our Production Department to put together this handy glossary. If you were previously unacquainted with the delights of debossing, snot-glue, kiss-cutting or Sherpas, look no further . . .

Bound proofs                 

These are bound copies that should match as closely as possible to the end product. However, they usually haven’t been through the proofreading process yet. These are used to check binding/construction and by Sales and Marketing departments as review copies. This gives reviewers and retailers an advance look. They are also used as safety-testing for novelty titles - primarily for our Children's books department. 

Coral frosting                 

Coral-like/raised granular effect. Can cause dents on adjacent pages when books are pressed together. Not safe for under three years. This can also be done with glitter and I heard some call this 'flitter' -- a combination of frosting and glitter!

an-example-of-coral-frosting-or-flitter[1].jpg

Die-lines                        

A die-line is used in graphic design as a placeholder for assisting in the proper layout of a document that will be die-cut as part of the finishing process.

Die-cutting

See die-lines. A cutter is made according to files supplied. Cutter used to manipulate board/page to desired shape. Can be used for perforations and/or punching the whole way through the board/page, as in the example below.

example-of-die-cutting

DPI                               

Dots per inch - This is a measurement of print resolution. High res is generally considered to be from 300dpi. Anything below this is considered low res. Different numbers of dots per inch are needed for documents/images to be displayed in print and on the internet, depending on the quality and clarity needed. 

Embossing/debossing      

The process of raising (embossing) or recessing (debossing) an image on a book cover using an uninked block. Can also have multi-layer embossing with different levels of raising. Often used to make the title or author name stand out.

End-matter/Back-matter   

The pages of the book after the main text, including extra sample chapters of the next book, author interviews, an index, order forms, adverts and suchlike.

End-papers                      

Lining paper used for the front and back boards of a hardback book. Also known as end-sheets. See the hardback edition of Chris Riddel's Goth Girl for a stunning example of foil end-papers. 

example of end papers

Extent                          

The complete number of pages in a printed book.

Flocking                       

This is the process of depositing many small fibre particles (called 'flock') onto a surface. It also refers to the texture produced by the process.

Foil                              

A finishing process added to covers/sheets using a stamping technique. Foil can be coloured, metallic, or holographic. See the image of Harvest by William Horwood.

example of gold foil on the cover of Harvest

GSM                              

Paper density expressed in grams per square metre (g/m² or gsm). Also known as grammage.

Head/tail bands             

A narrow band of plain or striped sewn cotton glued to the top and bottom of a hardback book’s spine. Primarily a cosmetic addition with minimal addition to the binding strength.

Kiss-cut                         

See Die-cutting. Same process, but the cutter does not fully penetrate the page/board, so the pieces can be pressed out or taken off the page by the reader. Used for perforations, stickers or press-out pieces (such as jigsaws). More often used for novelty and children’s books. See our picture of Star Paws stickers here:

example of kiss cutting

Lamination                   

The application of a transparent gloss or matt finish, added once the ink has dried as a separate process.

Supermatt is a type of lamination with an extra matt feel. Sometimes known as soft-touch matt lamination.

Lenticular                     

A technique that gives images movement when the book is held at different angles or moved. Can be 2-phase/3-phase/multi-phase or 3D effect.

Microns                        

Measure for thickness of paper or board – e.g. a commonly used paper for regular fiction titles is 52/120, which stands for 52gsm (see above for gsm definition) and 120 microns thick.

Pantone/PMS                 

Industry standard colour reference system. Each colour bears a description for its formulation in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) percentages. PMS stands for Pantone Matching System and is often what the printers refer to instead of Pantone.

book covers printed on A4 sheets with the pantones alongside them

Perfect Bound                

Pages are bound using glue rather than sewn (section sewn). 

Plate                            

Metal, plastic or paper image-carriers used to carry ink to the paper during the printing process. For 4 colour printing (i.e. full colour as opposed to black and white) a separate ‘plate’ is used for each colour.

PPC/PLC                       

Printed Paper Case – this is where the cover art is printed directly onto the hardback cover, rather than it having a separate paper jacket. This produces a high gloss finish. Also known as a Printed Laminated Case.

Prelims/front matter      

The pages of the book prior to the main text, including contents page, copyright information, dedication, etc.

Sherpa                         

Four colour digital print-out of the cover artwork, a type of proof to check colours are printing correctly before printing of the book (most commonly used in black and white printing, rather than illustrated colour printed) See images taken from our Leigh Evans and Julian May books. 

Example of sherpa using Leigh Evans' book Fate

Snot glue                      

Small piece of transferrable and removable, snot-like glue, often used to affix removable components to the inside cover of books. Such as CDs in plastic envelopes, 3D glasses, posters etc.

Sprayed edges               

Where the edges of a book are sprayed for cosmetic effect.

Image showing book Goth Girl with purple sprayed edge pages

T&F (touch and feel)      

Books including elements such as fur, leatherette, sticky. See Gruffalo Touch and Feel as an example.

TPS                              

Trim Page Size – the size of a book measured in millimetres.

Typesetting                   

When the text is transformed from for example a word document to designed, print-ready book pages, set in a particular style or font. This can be done in-house or outsourced.

Varnishes                      

UV/Matt/Machine/Aqueou – these are all coatings on top of a printed product to enhance its visual effect, referred to as finishes.

Spot UV Varnish is where spots of the page/cover have been flooded with varnish (giving a slightly raised effect) rather than the whole page/cover. Often used to enhance either a book title or author name, or a particular visual element on the cover to make it stand out from a matt background.

Wibalin                        

An unwoven cover material used to simulate cloth on the cover of books. This is wrapped around the book cover board. It’s possible to stamp foil on wibalin boards to e.g. produce an author name, title and imprint logo on the spine of a book.

Wire/saddle stitch          

A binding type where sections are stapled rather than sewn/glued in.